Apparent lack of chytrid infection in northeast Tobago’s frogs

Robyn Thomson, Paul A. Hoskisson, Sarah Brozio, J.R. Downie

Abstract


Six species of Tobago frogs (including the stream frog Mannophryne olmonae) from 11 sites across the northeast of the island were tested in 2016 for the presence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. No chytrid was detected in any of the 176 samples (20-39 frogs per species). These results contrast with a 2006 survey which found chytrid in 25% of the M. olmonae individuals sampled, though none in smaller samples of four other species. Together with similar results from Trinidad, our findings indicate that the infection may have died out or be at a very low level in Trinidad and Tobago. However, there is a need to sample from the south of Tobago and from two threatened species not yet assessed.

Keywords


amphibians; Caribbean; chytridiomycosis; Tobago

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alemu,J.B., Cazabon, M.N.E, Dempewolf, L., Hailey, A., Lehtinen, R.M., Mannette, R.P., Naranjit, K.T. and Roach, A.C.J. 2008. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in populations of the Critically Endangered frog Mannophryne olmonae in Tobago, West Indies. Ecohealth, 5:34-39.

Alemu, J.B., Cazabon-Manette, M.N.E., Cunningham, A.A., Dempewolf, L., Hailey, A., Mannette, R.P., Naranjit, K.T., Perkins, M.W. and Schmidt-Roach, A.C.J. 2013. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a Vulnerable frog in Trinidad, West Indies. Endangered Species Research, 20: 131-136.

Brem, F., Mendelson III, J.R. and Lips, K.R. 2007. Field-sampling protocol for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from living amphibians using alcohol preserved swabs (version 1.0). Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA, p.1-10.[On-line] Available at http://www.amphibians.org (Accessed May, 2017).

Frost, D.R. 2017. Amphibian Species of the World:an online reference, version 6.0 American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. [On-line] Available at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed 4 October, 2017)

Greener, M.S., Shepherd, R., Hoskisson, P.A., Asmath, H. and Downie, J.R. 2017. How many Trinidad stream frogs (Mannophryne trinitatis) are there, and should they be regarded as Vulnerable to extinction? Herpetological Journal, 27:5-11.

Greenhawk, N., Zlotnik, S., Billy, L.M., Boas, S. and Gabel,S. 2017. Baseline amphibian survey and sampling of Bd in the Icaco and Hormiga valleys, Puerto Rico. Phyllomedusa, 16: 63-69.

Hudson, M.A., Young, R.P., D’Urban Jackson, J., Orozco ter Wegel, P., Martin, L., James, A., Sulton, M., Garcia, G., Griffiths, R.A., Thomas, R., Magin, C., Bruford, M.W. and Cunningham, A.A. 2016. Dynamics and genetics of a disease driven species decline to near extinction: lessons for conservation. Scientific Reports, 6:e30772.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN red list of threatened species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and natural Resources. [On-line] Available at www.iucnredlist.com (Accessed 4 October, 2017)

Kilpatrick, A.M., Briggs, C.J., and Daszak, P. 2010. The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25: 109-118.

Lehtinen,R.M., Calkins, T.L., Novick,A.M. and McQuigg, J.L. 2016. Reassessing the conservation status of an island endemic frog. Journal of Herpetology, 50:249-255.

Murphy, J.C. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.

Olson, D.H., Aanensen, D.M., Walker, S.F., Bielby, J., Garner, T.W.J., Weaver, G., Group T.B.M. and Fisher, M.C. 2013. Mapping the global emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus. PLoS ONE, 8: e56802.

Rodriguez-Brenes, S., Rodriguez, D., Ibanez, R. and Ryan, M.J. 2016. Spread of amphibian chytrid fungus across lowland populations of tungara frogs in Panama. PLoS ONE, 11: e0155745.

Sabino-Pinto,J., Bletz, M.C., Iturriaga, M., Vences, M. and Rodriguez, A. 2017. Low infection prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Chytridiomycetes: Rhizophydiales) in Cuba. Amphibia-Reptilia, 38:243-249.

Scheele, B.C., Hunter, D.A, Brannelly, L.A., Skerratt, L.F. and Driscoll, D.A. 2017. Reservoir-host amplification of disease impact on an endangered amphibian. Conservation Biology, 31: 592-600.

Shepherd, R., Hoskisson, P.A., and Downie, J.R. 2016. Apparent absence of chytrid infection in Trinidad’s frogs. Living World: Journal of the Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists’ Club, 2016: 19-22.

Stuart, S., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fishman, D.L. and Waller, R.W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science, 306: 1783-1786.

Venesky, M.D., Raffel, T.R., McMahon, T.A. and Rohr, J.R. 2014. Confronting inconsistencies in the amphibian-chytridiomycosis system; implications for disease management. Biological Reviews, 89: 477-483.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.